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Saturday, July 25, 2009

HUMANITAS ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία PAIDEIA


ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία

DEFINITIONS OF HUMANITAS (Greek Concept: paideia)

I. human nature, humanity;
the quality and inclination of humankind.

II. mental cultivation befitting
a human being, liberal education;
refined manners, eloquence of language

Studia humanitatis, first defined by CICERO , consist of the "studies of humanity" -- or those studies which are most appropriate and befitting a free man or human being.

These studies, however, were not limited to Rome, for Cicero openly acknowledged the philosophical inheritance of the studia humanitatis descending from the ancient Greek concept of enkuklios paideia, which is the "encircling or well-rounded education"

Today we know these studies are not limited to man alone or only to the rich but to man and woman alike and rich and poor.

According to Cicero, in his speech Pro Archia, where the Roman orator argued in defense of the claim and right to Roman citizenship of his mentor and friend, the Greek poet-scholar Archias, these "studies of humanity" have a kind of common bond or kinship, and thereby constitute a true liberal education the kind all free citzens should be exposed to.

In other words, it is a humane or liberal education which sets the mind and soul free. (L. liberos, Gr. eleutherios).



But then, O my friends, he said, if the soul is really immortal, what care should be taken of her, not only in respect of the portion of time which is called life, but of eternity!

And the danger of neglecting her from this point of view does indeed appear to be awful. If death had only been the end of all, the wicked would have had a good bargain in dying, for they would have been happily quit not only of their body, but of their own evil together with their souls.

But now, as the soul plainly appears to be immortal, there is no release or salvation from evil except the attainment of the highest virtue and wisdom.

For the soul when on her progress to the world below takes nothing with her but nurture and education; which are indeed said greatly to benefit or greatly to injure the departed, at the very beginning of its pilgrimage in the other world."

Socrates in Plato's Phaedo, 107 in Jowett's translation. "

The soul of man is immortal and imperishable."

Plato, The Republic,, Book X, 608-D

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

The Isle of Innisfree - Maureen Hegarty

another version

Gaelic song - Ar Éirinn Ní Neosfainn Cé Hí: A glimpse into heaven or at least a chance to feel a love so great it could never die MARIA McCOOL

Gaelic song - Ar Éirinn Ní Neosfainn Cé Hí SUNG BY MARIA MCCOOL

Lyrics (Liricí):

Aréir is mé ag téarnamh um neoin
ar an taobh thall den teora ina mbím
do thaobhnaigh an spéirbhean i m' chomhair
d'fhag taomanach breoite lag sinn.
do ghéilleas dá méin is dá cló
dá bréithre 's dá beol tana binn.
Do léimeas fá dhéin dul 'na comhair
is ar Éirinn ní neosfainn cé hí.

Dá ngéillfeadh an spéirbhean do m' ghlór
agus ráite mo bheoil a bheith fíor
go deimhin duit, go ndéanfainn do ghnó,
do léirchur i gcóir is i gcríoch.
Do léifinn go léir stair do m' stór
is bna mhéin liom í a phógadh ó m' chroí
do bhéarfainn an chraobh di gan ghó,
is ar Éirinn ní neosfainn cé hí.

Tá spéirbhruinneall mhaorga dheas óg
Ar an taobh eile den teora ina mbím,
Tá féile agus daonnacht ina snó
Is deise agus meon ins an mhnaoi
Tá folt aici ar lasadh mar ór
Go cócanach ómarach buí,
Tá lasadh ina leacain mar rós
S ar Éirinn ní neosfainn cé hí.

==English Translation==
Last night as I strolled abroad
On the far side of my farm
I was approached by a comely maiden
Who left us distraught and weak.
I was captivated by her demeanour and shapeliness
By her sensitive and delicate mouth,
I hastened to approach her
But for Ireland I'd not tell her name.

If only this maiden heeded my words,
What I'd tell her would be true.
Indeed I'd devote myself to her
And see to her welfare.
I would regale her with my story
And I longed to take her to my heart
Where I'd grant her pride of place
But for Ireland I'd not tell her name.

There is a beautiful young maiden
On the far side of my farm
Generosity and kindness shine in her face
With the exceeding beauty of her countenance.
Her hair reaches to the ground
Sparkling like yellow gold;
Her cheeks blush like the rose
But for Ireland I'd not tell her name.

Donnie Munro of Runrig


Walk out the door, your eyes filled with tears
or stay and confront me and face all your fears
linger in silence neither distant or near
it's not going to change a thing

Lay down beside me and question my faith
or hold me with all the love we have made
share all your secrets or hide them away
it's not going to change a thing

The picture is painted, the colours are bold
one for each season of life I suppose
it no longer matters, the story is told
it's not going to change a thing

Lie here and talk of whatever you want
or dare to compare all the things we've done wrong
what care the world when we're all dead and gone
it's not going to change a thing

The picture is painted, the colours are bold
one for each season of life I suppose
it no longer matters, the story is told
it's not going to change a thing
it's not going to change one thing (SEE FACEBOOK)

Sunday, July 19, 2009

Worse than ten Munroes

Monro, Alexander (1733 — 1817)

In 1754 he succeeded his father, also Alexander Monro (1697 — 1767), as professor of anatomy and was also the first occupant of the chair of surgery in Edinburgh University (1777). Burns mentioned him in the fragment 'The Poet's Progress'.

"Critics! Appall'd, I venture on the name,
Those cut-throat bandits in the paths of fame:
Bloody dissectors, worse than ten Munroes;
He hacks to teach, they mangle to expose."

Saturday, July 18, 2009


> Larry Auster, who doesn't like Palin much, being the New York intellectual he
is, if conservative, has an interesting item today:
> Sarah Palin on Running
> By way of an article in the New York Times, I came upon an interview with
Sarah Palin in Runner's World. She's devoted to running, which has always been a
central part of her life, along with sports and physical activities generally,
and it's an interesting and enjoyable interview.
> But then--I want to keep this point separate from the interview, which is
purely about running and entirely positive--numerous commenters attack her,
saying such things as that the interview is "garbage" and they don't want to
read Runner's World any more because it had the interview.

Then you realize that there really is such a thing as Palin hatred out there. Hatred of her as a human being. Hatred of her for existing. If she drank a glass of water they would hate her for that. As I've said, I don't understand such hatred. I don't know what they hate her for. I don't know what she symbolizes to them and if they are hating something larger through her.

But the hatred exists and it's a very ugly
and disturbing thing. really is such a thing as Palin hatred out there.

of her as a human being.

Hatred of her for existing. If she drank a glass of
water they would hate her for that.

As I've said, I don't understand such
hatred. I don't know what they hate her for.

I don't know what she symbolizes to
them and if they are hating something larger through her. But the hatred exists
and it's a very ugly and disturbing thing.
THERE IS NO QUESTION THERE IS real idelogical hate is among certain Democratic
voters of the left. It equals in its hate quotient anything hatched among the Klan and Stormfront white supremacists, and it dwarfs the Neonazis in size by a one
million multiplier.

Larry Auster seems intelligent and fair from what I have read.
There is no question there is Palin hatred out there.

Now this is no surpise to me, personally. It used to shock me when people
showed hatred to the Pope and the Catholic Church but of course the Pope
represents a stark reminder of the old verities which though rejected strongly
by a new generation are distasteful reminders of a moral order and way of life
they would wish would disappear from the face of the earth. Planned Parenthood
zealots and NOW zealots believe in their way of life (to me a culture death
tending towards sexual suicide and a cult of childlessnes) as if it were the one
true religion. There is no question of tolerance or repsect on their behalf.
They KNOW they are up-to-date and RIGHT and the Pope and the Church and any
traditionalists at all are wrong and must be kept down or wiped out. They, as
secularists cannot understand the staying power of religion but they sense it is
in the family and to destroy the traditional family they need to discourage,
confuse or discredit traditional marriage and especially discourage women from
being wives and mothers and especially discourage them from being pro-life or
having large families.

I have noted, among so-called liberals of the Sierra Club, a great hatred for
Hispanic immigration and the Catholic Church which they feel is the primary
cause for poverty and overpopulation. There is a great dislike for tradition
women and many "advanced" American women (university educated) thrown scorn upon
immigrant women for their bad teeth, their shapeless figures but especially
their large broods of children.

Palin is very very unusual in that she is a native born American woman and a
mother of five. To the mind of Sangerites and NOWists a woman with multiple
pregnancies -this is an article of faith- sacrifices her figure. But Palin has
the figure of a 19 year old cheerleader. Many of her detracters are probably
deeply jealous. So they attack her character and intelligence. The reasons for
this are, probably, that she grew up eating a lot of fresh fish and game not
fatty pork or beef and has since early girlhood led a very active physical life.
Hiking in the snow, hunting, fishing, playing basketball and running. She is
reportedly a moderate eater, does not smoke and is abstemious in drink. Palin
is in fact an excellent role model for us all when it comes to a healthy

Speaking frankly, I doubt I would be intellctually impressed by Sarah Palin if
I knew her personally. But I am very bookish man
happy to spend the morning reading a novel and the afternoon studying Stoic
philosophers (Epictetus, Aurelius, Seneca) to follow that with a history. She
and her husband probably wouldn't like me or have much in common with me. But
most people don't like me and I don't hold that against them. I prefer the
company of books to most people. I am sure I am fonder of whiskey and beer than
she is but I don't think she would make me feel uncomfortable about it. But
I think I would respect her very much for her family values , integrity and
hospitality. And I think there is no question we would share patriotic
values and great admiration for patriots and great Americans like Lincoln,
Washington, Theodore Roosevelt, Eisenhower and Reagan. Like me I think she
feels the Democratic party has lost its moorings but I think also we would
share a disdain and distrust for Beltway Republican elites. I can say very
truly that I have grown to hate with a passion many liberals but I especially
hate Republican elites who have been unkind and contemptuous to Mrs. Palin. So
much so I would possibly never support or vote for another Republican as long as
I live. Most of them seem incompetent and worthless anyway. But Sarah Palin
I trust; she represents the kind of nice Western women from Texas, Arizona and
Washington (State) who are the best of an ancient tradition of
independent but modest, God-fearing womanhood of mothers, aunts and sisters. My
mother, who was an Islander, came from that tradition. So did both my
grandmothers and so does my charming, diligent, loyal and true Spanish wife who
is the rock and foundation of our loving family life. My wife admires and
supports Mrs. Palin and became a US citizen so that she could vote for her. We
contributed $500 which is a lot for us. We rarely contribute to candidates; we
prefer to support our favorite authors and artists by buying multiple copies of
their works.

I am sure that Mrs. Palin is knowledgeable about music (she plays the flute) and
the Bible and that she is better read than many people give her credit for.
But I also know there is a great knowledge to be found in DOING things and
WORKING with people. I respect people who can do physical things I cannot do.
I can shoot (I was a soldier) but I know my limitations and respect people who
are crack shots (as Mrs. Palin is). I know from experience that gun safety and
markmanship represent many hours of training and practice. Personally, I
prefer the piano to pistols and rifle ranges. However, I would not hesitate
to plug an intruder and evil doer if neccessary who interrupted the peace and
security of my hearth and home. Touch not this cat without a glove. I know
there a times when a man must kill or die or be prepared to die.

Today I got a letter and a free CD from cellist and composer Wendy Weatherby; I
love music and I respect people who can play better than I and create. I am
not jealous; on the contrary I enjoy my relationship with her and other artists
and I like to encourage them. My wife is so neat and clean; she makes the
kitchen and bathrooms sparkle. I try to help but basically do the heavy
manual labor, lifting and scrubbing. I acknowledge, with humility, that I am
good at some few things but not good at other things. It takes all kinds to
make a world.

I don't know exactly what qualties Sarah Palin has or if she would be an
effective president. I admit to not being sure. But I can say this with
certitude. Sarah Palin is a great American woman. She may be the last gasp
of a great tradition of great women like Julia Ward Howe and Mercy Otis Warren
women who were great Americans, wives and mothers.

But this is why Palin is hated. She is everything most men wish their wives
and girlfriends are but are not. I am lucky in that even though I would not be
good enough for Sarah Palin I have a wonderful woman from the same Great

Palin is hated because she represents common sense and not pop psychology.
Palin is like a lot of strong Western grannies I know who are kind, motherly
and crack shots. They are my friends and they know I am a man to be trusted
and that I would lay down my life for those I love, my family, my students and
my friends. Maureen Dowd and her ilk? Mostly childless shrews and vixens who
are for the most part selfish and worthless people. In 50 years they will not
even leave a trace. People many people will still talk of Sarah Palin with
love and respect. That is a given. She is a very loved woman. And she will
have hundreds of descendants.


Thursday, July 16, 2009

Some Gaelic Proverbs: Is buaine bladh na saoghal.

1)Cha d'fhag claidheamh Fhinn riamh fuigheall beuma.
Fingal's sword never had to cut twice.

2)1Is fhearr fheuchainn na bhith san duil.
It's better to try than to hope.

3)Chan eil tuil air nach tig traoghadh.
Every flood will have an ebb.

5) Is e 'n cadal fada ni 'n t-iomradh teth.
Long sleep makes hot rowing.

6) Na abair do sheanfhacal gus an toir thu do long gu caladh.
Don't quote your proverb till you bring your ship to port.

7)Aon bho a bhristeas an garradh, 's a dha dheug a leumas
One cow breaks the fence, and a dozen leap it.

8_Is leor luathas na h-earba gun na coin a chur rithe.
The roe is swift enough without setting the dogs on her.

9)Mhealladh e 'n t-ugh bhon chorra-ghlais, ged bhiodh a da shuil a' coimhead air.
He would cheat the heron of her egg, though her two eyes were fixed on him.
(a very crafty and crooked man!!)

10) Is duilich burn glan a thoirt a tobar salach.
It's difficult to draw pure water from a dirty well.
(Often used methaphorically)

11) Is fhearr an t-olc a chluinntinn na fhaicinn.
Better to hear the evil than see it.

12) Dh'aithnichinn air do sheirc do thabhartas.
I would know your gift by your graciousness.

13)Is iomadh urchair tha dol san fhraoch.
Many a shot goes into the heather.

14)Is fad' an abhainn air nach fhaighear ceann.
It's a long river whose head can't be found.

15)Gheibh righ feachd, 's gheibh domhan daoine.
Kings will find armies, and the world men.

16) Ge cruaidh sgarachdainn, cha robh dithis gun dealachadh.
Though separation be hard, two never met but had to part.
(Aye, 'Struth; so it was for the leal and true of the Ants and many others)

17) Ruigidh an ro-ghiullachd air an ro-ghalar.
The best of nursing may overcome the worst disease.

18) Is fhurasda caisteal gun seisdeadh a ghleidheach.
It's easy to keep a castle that's not besieged.

19)Is minig a bha claidheamh math an droch thruaill.
Good sword has often been in poor scabbard.

20) Na geill do ghis, cha gheill gis dhut.
Don't give in to spells, they won't give in to you.

21)Is tric as daoir' a' chomain na 'n dubh-cheannach.
A favour often costs more than what's hard-bought.

22_Cha bhi suaimhneas aig eucoir, no seasamh aig droch-bheairt.
Wrong cannot rest, nor ill deed stand.

23)Is ann a tha 'n cairdeas mar a chumar e.
Friendship is as it's kept.

24) Am fear nach gleidh na h-airm san t-sith, cha bhi iad aige 'n am a' chogaidh.
He that keeps not his arms in time of peace will have none in time of war.
VERY TRUE; there are similar expressions in Latin and French; but the Highland one is more personal and goes with the 2nd amendment.

25)Tha fios fithich agad.
You have a raven's knowledge.
( I wrote a one act play called the RAVEN on the ROOF; Raven's supposedly had secret knowledge; this is an ancient pagan metaphor which probably recalls faintly an ancient pagan story)

26)Cha tuig an t-og aimbeart, 's cha tuig amadan aimhleas.
Youth foresees not poverty, nor the fool his mischief.

27)Is mios' an t-eagal na 'n cogadh.
Fear is worse than fighting.

28) Bheir duine beath' air eiginn, ach cha toir e rath air eiginn.
A man may force a livelihood, but cannot force fortune.

30)Ma tha Dia ann, 's chan eil fhios a bheil, fag eadar sinn fhein 's na biodagan!
If there be a God, and no one knows whether there be, leave it between ourselves and the dirks! (SPOKEN BY HIGHLAND SKEPTIC)

31) Is minig a bha an fhirinn searbh ri h-innse.
Truth is often harsh to tell.

32) Is buaine bladh na saoghal.
Renown is more lasting than life.

33) Na tarraing mi gun adhbhar, 's na pill mi gun chliu.
Neither draw me without cause, nor return me without honour.
(A sword inscription.)

33)Is cruaidh a leonar an leanabh nach innis a ghearan.
The child is sadly hurt that doesn't tell his illness.

34)Is fhearr na 'n t-or sgeul innse air choir.
Better than gold is a tale rightly told.

35)Chan or a h-uile rud buidhe, 's chan uighean a h-uile rud ban.
All that's yellow is not gold, and all white things are not eggs.

36)Tha chomhachag ri bron, thig tuiltean oirinn.
The owl is mourning, rain is coming. (it rhymes in Gaelic)

37) Fialachd don fhogarrach, 's cnaimhean briste don eucorach!
Hospitality to the exile, and broken bones to the oppressor!

38 )Is lugha na fride mathair a' chonnsachaidh.
The mother of dissension is smaller than a mite.'

39)Mar a theid an t-eun o dhuilleag gu duilleag, theid am meanan o dhuine gu duine.
As the bird goes from leaf to leaf, the yawn goes from man to man.

40)Na innis do run do d'charaide gorach, no do d'namhaid glic.
Tell not thy mind to thy foolish friend, nor to thy wise enemy.

41) Ithear cruach 'na breacagan.
A stack can be eaten in cakes.

42)Chan e gogadh nan ceann a ni an t-iomradh.
It is not the nodding of heads that does the rowing.

43) Is math an sgathan suil caraide.
A friend's eye is a good looking-glass.

44)Is binn gach eun 'na dhoire fhein.
Sweet sings each bird in his own grove.

45) An rud a nitear sa chuil, thig e dh'ionnsaigh an teine.
What's done in the corner will come to the hearth.

Source: Gaelic Proverbs, by Alexander Nicolson (collected in the 19th century; a selection). I know some others that are not in any book.

Sunday, July 5, 2009

More ACLU Michief

Honor the veterans as THEY CHOOSE to be honored. To take down a memorial to the WWI doughboys would be a tyrannical defacement of history by the people, of the people and for the people. The first amendment allows for the FREE EXCERCISE of RELGION. No federal funds were used for this memorial. The memorial has a long history.

Bin Laden would like to see it removed so whoever wants it removed agrees with Bin Laden.

Saturday, July 4, 2009

My view of Mrs.Palin's decision

I think her primary reasons were financial. The Democrats in Alaska -despite the fact that she saved tens of thousands of dollars by getting rid of the chef and the plane- harassed her for her reimbursements for her frequent trips home. She was harassed for travelling with her children and forced to pay back much of that money. And more importantly she has by her own admissions $500,000 in legal bills to pay. The Palins are not wealthy people. They have few savings and few assets besides their home (mortgaged) and their vehicles. I think the financial bleeding month to month -made worse by not allowing her per diem reembursemens was becoming intolerable. If she did nothing and stayed where she was she might end her term millions of debt and in a very precarious financial situation. Now she can earn money for speaking engagements and write her book. It is very possible that she has no desire to run for president at all but wants to be with her family (especially Piper and the baby).

So whatever reason she had (and I think it must have been a good one) I support her decision 100%. Life is not about glory it is about doing the right thing. It is about love and friendship. Service to the state and nation is one thing but neglect of one's family and security are another. I personally understand this well. I was very , very action in two campaigns in my adult life and in one I was virtually at the center as one of the top campaingers, translators and advisors to Ron Unz (Prop 227). But If there is one thing I have learned about politics is that one must have strong political base (such as a union) or a personal fortune. Citizens can participate in politics at a low level which means being informed, writing letters , voting and perhaps some local canvassing or campaigning. But only the moneyed elite can stop what they are doing, stop working and dedicate the time and money to 'public service.' There is nothing bizarre about Sarah Palin's decision at all. She is getting out while the going is good. She has a very positive record as governor and she is placing a strong politcal ally in her place. She is still a power in Alaska politics if she wants to be. But we really don't know what is in her mind. But we do know her family was unhappy with the media attention and attacks and by her frequent absences.

From the strictly political point of view it may have been suicidal (she should have perhaps stayed on until the end of her term). But i wouldn't count her out. She is the most popular woman in Alaska. If she ran for Senator she would win and by that time she would have solidified her personal finances and her campaign war chest.

I still thank God to know we have great American women like Mrs. Palin.

Richard K. Munro

Friday, July 3, 2009


Sometimes it seems that test scores ARE the purpose of education which is in my view unfortunate. I believe there should be many instruments to measure progress. The problem with measuring progress only by a serious of scantron tests is that one is measuring test-taking skills, English reading ability as well as content knowledge. I personally prefer to know what students know, not what they can guess. For that reason I always include an oral participation grade (which includes citizenship and class attitude) as well as, essays and short KEYNETs or cultural literacy items (key names, events and treaties). One thing "experts" never point out is how easy it is to fake or cheat on scantron tests particulary when there are 45 or 50 students in a classroom designed to fit no more than 30. AP exams are more authentic instruments because:
1) they have an established curriculum which must be completed (but no single required text)if one is to be competitive.
2) the AP exam is a cumulative exam
3) it does not rely exclusively on scantron multipe choice items test include essays and sometimes listening and speaking portions as well. Altogether the parts of the test give a very reliable indication of the level of competency of the student.

And most importantly students who take AP exams -most pay a high fee ($84 or more) are motivated to try their very best AND they are rewarded if they make a passing or high score. It is not unusual for a student to get 12,24 or even 36 college credits for high school AP work. And of course even schools which (shamefully in my view) do nor award any AP credits, high AP (or IB International Baccalaureate) scores often result in scholarships.

So the AP is a voluntary national and international standard. Teachers and students can meet that standard ANY WAY THEY WANT. They can choose any textbook they like and they can choose any outside reading they like BUT they must, if they want to be successful, read widely. There is no question that the more AP tests one takes in the humanities the more acacdemic excellence is rewarded. There is no question there are correlations between AP European history, AP US history, AP English and AP Spanish literature for example. All of these tests have some themes and skills in common and the cultural literacy acquired in AP English will help one do will in AP Spansih literature (literary analysis which is essentially based on Greek, Roman and French models and terms is the almost the same in any Western language even to the point of using the same vocabulary.)

But let's look at the AP model as an example of VOLUNTARY NATIONAL STANDARDS.

If one were to push for VOLUNTARY NATIONAL STANDARDS one merely need to establish and incentive and reward for students who complete the curriculum work and do well on the testing.

Students could be given cash rewards or vvouchers for college or training schools. When I talk to students I ask them what is their greatest need and they say:
1) having a car for transportation
2) getting financial aid or tuition waivers.

Many students say it would be a very great incentive to attend school regularly and do well on standarized tests if they got something out of it.

Right now in California we spend (read waste) millions of dollars on CST's that DO NOT COUNT FOR ANYTHING AS FAR AS THE STUDENT is concerned. For the first time the score is listen on the transcript but otherwise they count for nothing. If we want a test to count we should reward students for
1) taking the test in a timely manner. RIght now school have to spend a huge amount of money tracking students down even sending people to their homes to get them out of bed. Then they are dragooned to take the test. But all the school cares about is meeting its goal of 95% of enrolled students taking the test. You can imagine the scores of some of these tests. Many students fill in the dots in a design and NEVER EVEN OPEN THE TEST PAMPHLET TO READ EVEN ONE QUESTION. If you can find a bigger waste of time and money, you tell me.
2) for achieving a certain standard or proficiency. We should give patches, free coupons for pizza, gas and even a chance to enter a lottery for a free car. Student who do the right thing should be rewarded in very substantial ways. Parents and relatives of course do this now for many middle class students but if we value academic excellence we should do more than merely awarding letter grades (which are meaningless to most students).

I personally am skeptical of IMPOSED NATIONAL standards because I know these standards would be biased and destroy local control and imput of our communities. But voluntary national standards could be encouraged by providing real incentives and rewards for schools , teachers and students. Now AP programs, for example, rely mostly on the altruism and professional pride of classroom teachers. There is no academic reward in fact teaching AP is a pay cut for most teachers because it means much more work to prepare and much more work to correct. Also most AP teachers have multiple preps anyway.
The only real sideline or bonus for AP teachers is the chance to become an AP Reader but this is a very minor sideline.

As far as books are concerned it is always interesting to discuss books. My primary impression is most "teacher ed" programs major in non-books that is to say ephemeral instruments of indoctrination that are so tendencious and dull that few in the general reading public could ever be convinced to read them. Few if any of the books read in teacher training programs could be seriously considered 'permanent' books. As long is that is the case our educational patterns will continue to be chaotic, confused and inefficently administered. Teachers, administrators , school boards, districts and states have very little idea what their aims should be in education and so progress in fts and starts aimlessly. It seems only by chance do some students get a true education.

Of course, I think there is a canon which ALL educated people should be familiar with and of course many books deal with the rearing of children, the training of youth in civility and societal norms and the instruction of youth in formal academic disciplines.